SPECIAL REPORT SERIES by Lady Michelle Jennifer Santos – TSR Founder & Publisher and Strategy/Peace Negotiator with the UN Security Council Special Envoy to the Arab Nations
August 25, 2011 (TSR) – Dear USA, France, UK and NATO, before you lie to the world that you have authority and right to invade a sovereign nation, making the world believe that Libyans want you in Libya, I would like to reiterate what 200 tribes in Eastern Libya where Benghazi is located, issued on their proclamation on July 26, 2011:
“By this letter to the extraordinary African Summit, convening in Addis Ababa, the notables of the Eastern tribes of the Great Jamahiriya confirm their complete rejection of what is called the Transitional Council in Benghazi which hasn’t been nominated nor elected by Tribal representatives but rather imposed by NATO.”
“What is called the Transitional Council in Benghazi was imposed by NATO on us and we completely reject it. Is it democracy to impose people with armed power on the people of Benghazi, many of whose leaders are not even Libyan or from Libyan tribes but come from Tunisia and other countries.”
“The Tribal Council assures its continuing cooperation with the African Union in its suggestions aimed at helping to prevent the aggression on the Libyan people”.…
“The Tribal Council condemns the crusader aggression on the Great Jamahiriya executed by the NATO and the Arabic regressive forces which is a grave threat to Libyan civilians as it continues to kill them as NATO bombs civilian targets.”…
“We do not and will not accept any authority other than the authority that we chose with our free will which is the People’s Congress and Peoples Committees, and the popular social leadership, and will oppose with all available means, the NATO rebels and their slaughter, violence and maiming of cadavers. We intend to oppose with all the means available to us the NATO crusader aggressors and their appointed lackeys”.
According to one representative of the Libyan Supreme Tribal Council, “The tribes of Libya have until today not fully joined in repelling the NATO aggressors. (This was July 26, 2011)
As we do, we serve notice to NATO that we shall not desist until they have left our country and we will ensure that they never return.”
Did you understand that NATO MEMBERS: Albania, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, France, Germany,Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania,Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Turkey, the United Kingdom, and the United States?
I suppose this is why all of you are SO desperate to do the transition this weekend. Instead of you backing down, now you know by doing this to Gaddafi and Libya, you have messed up the entire OIL business and will cause your people in your nations and around the world much more severe economic hardship. I now have to explain to the planet the huge implications of this. If you stopped your little games you planned in 2010 and just used assimilation games, we wouldn’t have gone this far, wouldn’t we? Now, all of you 28 + the other countries who support all the media lies and propaganda by France, UK and USA have destroyed every diplomatic relations from here and the future. The fact is, USA/France/Britain/NATO, you will lose this. We told you to back off Libya. The arrogant you are, the harder you fall. It is not over yet. I haven’t given you my surprise yet. I’ve been working on it. I’ve decided to do VIDEO as I need to hurry up before you do drop a nuclear bomb or something. Don’t worry, I’m still writing. It’s having to do so many countries at once all by myself, while you have trillions of dispensable stolen or borrowed cash is just exhausting. I may as well have a little fun.
Since March 4, 2011, Libya’s biggest tribe, the Warfala, has switched sides to back the anti-government revolutionary groups. They are one million strong and dominant in the northern cities of Bani Walid, Tripoli and Benghazi. The Tarhuna, also nearly one million strong with around 350,000 followers in Tripoli, have followed suit.
Other significant tribes to have defected include the Zawiya, who have threatened to cut the flow of oil to Western countries unless the regime crackdown stops; the Zentan tribe; the Bani Walid; and the Obeidat tribe of Abdul-Fatah Younis, the former interior minister who sensationally defected and maintains he has proof that Gaddafi ordered the Lockerbie Bombing.
LET US LEARN A BIT ABOUT THE LIBYA and THE PEOPLE
The name Libya is often written in various forms including Lybia, Libia, Libye and Lebya. There are several theories attempting to explain the origin of the name, but it is almost certain that it comes from the ancient Berber tribe known to the ancient Egyptians as Rebu or Ribu; from which the Greeks derived “Libya“, and which the Arabs of today’s Egypt know as Lubia, whence Lubians, in line with their relatives and neighbours the Nubians. The name Libia, as found in the archaeological site of Qasr Libya or Qaser Libia, in Cyrenaica, is widely thought to have been derived from the ancient Libyan village of Olbia. According to (the African) Leo Africanus (1600, p. 13), it was called Libya by the Greek: “Because it was in old time conquered by Libs the king of Mauritania. In the holie scriptures it is called Chamesis, by the Arabians and Ethiopians Alkebulam, and by the Indians Besecath.” In the Bible the Libyans appeared as the Lubim, where the -m denotes the plural form; but after the Hebrews decided to add the letter H to several names, like Abram becoming Abraham, and Sara > Sarah, the Lubim appeared in the Old Testament as Lehabim, the son of Mizraim; which Oric Bates, in his unique book The Eastern Libyans, was the first to identify with the modern variant Ta-Mazigh-t(Tamazight), an appellation widely applied to the whole Berbers of North Africa. The proposed etymology of ‘Libya’ being moisture has no support other than the Libyan wind which brought rain to Greek mainland, and, as it is obvious that the Greek Libu is merely a corruption of Egyptian Ribu following the universal rule of L = R, one does not need to propose a Greek etymology for a name that is not Greek. The proper etymology must be sought in the mother language of the given word – the ancient Libyan language. Egyptian and Berber are both members of the Hamitic branch of the Hamito-Samitic linguistic family, and many of the ancient Egyptian and Berber mythical gods and goddesses are still represented on the rock art of the great Sahara, in what is known as the largest collection of prehistoric art in the world: well over a hundred thousand sites.
Libya was also the name of the Goddess known to the Greeks as the Goddess Libya, and also of the whole continent before the Romans named it Africa after the Berber Goddess Afri. In mythology, the Goddess Libya had three sons by the Libyan Sea-God Poseidon: Belus, Agenor and Lelex. King Belus ruled at Chemmis or Chamesis of Leo Africanus, Agenor migrated to Cana’an (the Middle East), and Lelex became king of Megara. The wife of Belus Anchinoe, daughter of the Nile-god Nilus, bore him three sons: Aegyptus, Danaus and Cepheus, and one daughter: Lamia, the Libyan Snake-goddess. The myth relates an interesting “deception tale” in which Danaus was sent to rule Libya where he had fifty daughters, and Aegyptus, who had fifty sons, ruled over Egypt.
The actual name Libya, as a modern country, came into effect for the first time around 1934 when the provinces of Tripolitania and Cyrenaica were united as Libya during the Italian occupation; initially Fezzan was not included, but after independence the three provinces were united as one country, when on the 24th of December 1951 Libya was declared as the United Kingdom of Libya. Shortly after the arrival of Colonel Mua’mmar al-Qaddafi (Gaddafi), Libya became known as the Great Socialist People’s Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, where the last word (which is also spelt as Jamahiriyyah,Jamahiria, or Aljamahiria), became synonymous with Libya. The term Jamahiriya was coined by Colonel Qaddafi and defined as: the state of the masses, governed by the populace via local councils elected by the people of Libya.
The Libyans are very friendly people, regardless of their ethnic background, colour or social status. They respect privacy and generally will not hassle foreign visitors as is the custom elsewhere in North Africa! The Libyan population is estimated at over 5 million people, plus under 1.5 million immigrants, giving a total of 6.5 million people approximately. The Arabs are the majority inhabitants of Libya, who brought Islam to the region when they arrived during the seventh century AD from Arabia. The Arabs of Libya are members of the Sunni sect of Islam.
During the eleventh century a political conflict broke out between the ruling dynasties of Egypt, resulting in the arrival of Bani Hilal and Bani Salim tribes, and it is these two tribes that are originally Arab tribes brought from the Arabian peninsula to assist the Fatimid rulers. The major Arab cities include Tripoli, Benghazi, Sebha, Sabratha, Musratha, Zawiya, Khums, Albayda, Al-Merj, Darna, Tobruk, Hun and other smaller villages and settlements along the coast and in the interior.
Geographically speaking, Libya is the African gate through which early human civilisations found their way to Egypt, the Middle East, Asia and Europe. Libya’s strategic location was equally responsible for the successive waves of invasions throughout history, from the arrival of the Phoenicians down to Hitler’s attack on Tobruk. Libya is located in North Africa and is bordered by the Mediterranean sea from the north, Egypt from the East, Tunisia and Algeria from the west, and Niger, Chad and Sudan from the south. Libya is the fourth largest country in Africa (1.759.540 sq. km), and its coastline is the longest in any Mediterranean country: about 1900 kilometres of sand beaches, like those of Zuwarah and Janzur, clear water, and pure hot sunshine. Although Libya is not a top tourist destination, yet, it has a great deal to offer to the world of tourism and exploration. Well preserved prehistoric archaeological sites, the best preserved Roman architecture outside Italy, Greek remains, the largest desert in the world: the Great Sahara, the largest collection of prehistoric paintings and engravings in the world, remains of unseen prehistoric civilizations, spectacular Berber granaries and culture, diving sites and underwater archaeological treasures, the least spoiled beaches in the whole of the Mediterranean world, beautiful oases, kaleidoscopic salt lakes and sand seas, and awesome chains of mountains and valleys. Hence tourism is Libya’s fastest growing sector, and several of the newly established Libyan tour operators have successfully attracted foreign tourists, mainly from Germany, Holland, Spain, Italy, Switzerland and Japan. Overall, Libya possesses a unique treasure not only the world is eager to explore, but also the Libyan people are desperate to see and enjoy. In an article published in local Libyan newspaper some Libyans publicly voiced their concerns over the lack of any Libyan tour operators promoting tourism for the local people, and called for Libyan companies and the Libyan Secretariat of Tourism to publish and distribute brochures across the whole of Libya so that the Libyans themselves become aware of their ancient and unique culture that UNESCO regards as world heritage.
Area: 1.759.540 sq. km.
Coastline: 1,770 km.
Official holiday: Friday.
Libyan population: 5 million approximately.
Immigrant population: 1.5 million approximately.
Total Population: 6,461,454 (July 2010).
Gaddafi’s Revolution: 01/09/1969.
GDP per capita: $16,000.
GDP based on PPP: $91 Billion.
Internet domain name (TLD): .ly
NOTE: Internet cafes are widely available and provide free access to the Internet that is not free of charge – you would expect to pay a pound or two for one hour access. Yahoo and hotmail emails are the most popular webmails among the Libyans. The speed, however, is still mostly dial-up (at 0.40 LYD per hour for home use only). Some new companies started to provide high speed DSL Internet connection (which is only 256 kbps download). The Phoenicia Group (in partnership with other companies) have recently agreed to provide VSAT connectivity solutions to selected Libyan institutions. VSAT (Very Small Aperture Terminal) is a satellite Internet system without cable-based infrastructure (wireless), which is ideal for companies operating in the desert like oil and gas companies, as well as for the government, military and corporate clients. The Group also provides a 3G-based satellite Internet service launched by Inmarsat (about 428 Kbps), using a mobile lap-top sized terminal which can be set up almost anywhere worldwide. This services is known as BGAN (Broadband Global Area Network). The most recent service to enter the market is the wireless internet from Libyana Net, where a personal package provides 1 GB a month at up to 3.6 Mb/Sec for a one-off payment of 335 Libyan Dinars and then 15 LYD per a month, with 5 LYD for each additional 1MB ( http://www.libyana.ly/). Perhaps, this should explain why Google and Youtube are quite cooperative in shutting important evidence of war crimes on the internet in the Arab world lately. Just something to think about. It’s all about money.
Workweek: Sunday to Thursday.
Mobile: GMS 900 & 1800 networks.
Telephone: country code: +218; Tripoli: 021.
Driving: on the right-hand-side of the road.
Local Time: Greenwich Mean Time + 2 hours (UTC+2).
Religion: Sunni Muslim, Abadite Muslim.
Alcohol: all alcoholic drinks are prohibited.
Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, gypsum.
Weights: kilograms, measurements: meter.
Life expectancy: 77 years (women), 72 years (men).
Monetary unit (currency): Libyan Dinar (LYD).
Climate: Mediterranean along the coast; dry desert in the interior.
Average annual rainfall: 400 mm.
Average January Temperature: 12 degrees Celsius (about 53 degrees Fahrenheit).
Average July Temperature: 40 degrees Celsius (about 104 degrees Fahrenheit).
Ethnic groups: Arab and Berber (97%); Africans, Asians, Europeans (3%).
Post: ordinary and express mail; international DHL available in large cities.
Electricity: 220, 230, 240 volts – 50 Hz (plugs: two round pins, and tree square pins).
Industries: petroleum, textiles, handicrafts, cement and food processing.
Working hours Summer: 7:30 am to 2:30 pm; Winter: 8:00 am to 3:00 pm.
Natural Hazards: sand storms; hot, dry, dust-laden wind (gibli) in Spring and Autumn.
Emergency telephone line: 193 – equivalent to 999 (UK), or 911 (USA).
Major Exports: (US$37 billion, mostly from crude oil and refined petroleum products): Italy (38%), Germany (15%), Spain (9%), France (6%), Turkey (6%), U.S. (5%).
Major Imports: (US$14.47 billion, mostly of machinery, transport equipment, food, manufactured goods): Italy (21.2%), Germany (10%), Tunisia (6%), UK (5%), Turkey (5%), France (5%), South Korea (5%), China (4%).
Terrorism: Libya is the only country in North Africa where terrorists do not exist. Fundamentalists have no voice whatsoever in Libya. Not a single terror-incident has been recorded in Libya during Gaddafi’s regime.
Location: North Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Egypt, Tunisia and Algeria, southern border with Niger, Chad and Sudan.
Administrative divisions: 22 districts (shabiyat, singular – shabiyat); Al Butnan, Al Jabal al Akhdar, Al Jabal al Gharbi, Al Jafarah, Al Jufrah, Al Kufrah, Al Marj, Al Marqab, Al Wahat, An Nuqat al Khams, Az Zawiyah, Banghazi, Darnah, Ghat, Misratah, Murzuq, Nalut, Sabha, Surt, Tarabulus, Wadi al Hayat, Wadi ash Shati
The Main Arab Tribes of Libya:
The tribal system in Libya is still a fundamental part of Libyan society, more than anywhere else in the whole region. Most Libyan surnames carry the tribal name and therefore one can easily identify a person’s tribe simply by knowing his surname. For example, Col. Gaddafi comes from the Gaddadfa Tribe. There are at least 140 known clans or tribal networks in Libya. Once you learn these, you can start understanding why the western model and this so-called “democracy” will not work in a country like Libya (or anywhere in the Middle East). This is why many know that what US/NATO is doing is balkanization. But it is much worse: If these allies get their way, we will have another Somalia. These are tribes. I will give you our official assessment in the video report, but at the heart of the issue: NONE of these countries claiming to be “NATO crusaders” have any pure intention. I suggest you read up on Kosovo Crisis. Same actors. Same horror. Same plan.
(1) – Western Libya:
- Warfallah (Warfalla, Werfella): the largest Arab tribal group in west Libya, consisting of 52 sub-tribes and estimated at around one million people, inhabiting the areas of Baniwalid, Zamazam, Bey, Sirte, Sabha, Dernah, Benghazi and most recently the Misurata District.
- Az-Zintan: close to the Warfallah tribe: found mainly in the Western Mountain between the Berber towns of Jado and Yefren and Kabaw.
- Awlad Busayf (West Libya).
- Maslata: found in the area of Msallata, west Libya.
- Masrata: found in west Libya, with a large presence in Tripoli.
- Al-Rijban, Ar-Rujban (Western Mountain, Nafousa Mountain).
- Al-Majabra, al-Mujabra: south-west of Tripoli, close to the Western Mountain, and in the Jalo area in Cyrenaica in Eastern Libya. The most prominent member of this tribe is the Libyan head of the army Major General Abu-Baker Younis Jaber – one of the original members of the 12 officers of the Revolutionary Command Council led by Gaddafi in 1969.
(2) – Central Libya:
The central region refers to the desert area between Cyrenaica (East) and Tripolitania (West), which from ancient times was the border area between the two regions.
- Qaddafi, Qadadfah : Gaddadfa, Gadhadhfa, Qathathfa, Gathafi – centred around Sert [Sirte). An influential ruling tribe in today’s Libya, originally found around the present-day Sert in central Libya and Sabha in the south, the present capital of Fazzan. The leader of the September revolution, Col. Mua’mmar al-Qaddafi, belongs to the Al-Qaddafi tribe.
- Al-Magarha, al-Magariha, al-Megrahi: one of the largest tribe in the central-western region of Libya, and traditionally strong allies of the Gaddadfa tribe. The former Libyan Prime Minister Abdessalam Jalloud belongs to this tribe. Also the release of the alleged Lockerbie bomber Abdelbaset al-Megrahi was secured by Al-Qaddafi family.
- Al-Magharba (The Westerners).
(3) – Eastern Libya:
- Az-Zuwayya, Zuwayya, Zawiya: the largest and most influential tribe in Eastern Libya (Cyrenaica), largely found in Benghazi, Ejdabiyah, Kufra, Tazerbu (Tazirbu) and the surrounding areas.
- Bani Salim (Banu Saleem): like their brothers the Bani Hilal of Tripolitania the Bani Saleem tribes were brought from Arabia in the 11th century to assist in the spread of Islam in North Africa by the Fatimid rulers. While the Bani Slaeem settled in Cyrenaica as the first stop to strengthen the forces in the east of Libya the Bani Hilal continued their journey towards Tripolitania.
- Mesratha, Musratha, Misrata: an Eastern Libyan tribe inhabiting a number of towns and villages including Benghazi and Darna (Darneh). The name is the same as the name of the third largest town in Libya: Misuratha, in west Libya.
- Al-Awagir, al-Waqir: found in the Barqa region of Cyrenaica, with history of resistance against the Italians.
- Tawajeer: one of the prominent tribes of Cyrenaica.
- Ramla: one of the prominent tribes of Cyrenaica.
- Kargala: one of the prominent tribes of Cyrenaica.
- Kawar: a group of tribes in the region of Kaouar.
- Al-Abaydat, Abdiyat: a group of 15 tribes found in the area of Tobruk
- Masamir, Masameer:
- Farjan: found mainly west of Ajdabiya (Ejdabiyah), Sirte, and also in Zliten further west.
The Berbers are the indigenous inhabitants of Libya and the Sahara. There are numerous tribes found in East Libya, West Libya and across the entire Sahara desert where they have been since the beginning of civilisation. Their number is difficult to ascertain, since by their nomadic nature the Tuareg of the Sahara were not fully included in any census. However it was widely estimated that the Berbers constitute between 10% and 23% of the population of Libya, and therefore assuming an average of 17% would give just under one million Berbers. The Berbers are a Hamitic group of tribes, who share their linguistic ancestry with ancient Egyptian, Chadic and Omotic languages of East Africa. Hamitic languages and Semitic languages (like Phoenician, Akkadian, Hebrew and Arabic) are both members of the Afrasiatic phylum, originally called Hamito-Semitic Phylum. The majority of the Berbers belong to the Khariji or the Abadite sect of Islam.
The Berbers of Libya can be subdivided into three tribal groups:
The Berber tribes of Libya are made of hundreds of tribes, each of which is made of several clans and sub-tribes. The following summary is only a general description of the main tribal groups, as the divisions and clans of each group require a dedicated study of its own, which is beyond the scope of this summary.
(1) – The Western Berbers:
- Ait Willoul: those tribes inhabiting the coastal city of Zwara or Zuwarah, comprising a group of 12 sub-tribes. The name Zwara is found in various forms including Zuwarah, Zowara, Zuwara, Zwagha and Zouara; and therefore its association with the ancient Zwawa and Hawwara tribes of Tripolitania, as stated by various historians (al-Bakari, 11 century AD), who also asserted that the territories of Zuwarah traditionally included most of Tripolitania, from Tripoli all the way to the Tunisian border. Currently, the Zuwara territories extends from al-Manqoub (about 20 km east of Zuwara) to the Tunisian border (about 60 km west of Zuwara), where the fishing village of Abu-kemmash is still inhabited today by various tribes from Zuwarah city. Among the main sub tribes and clans of Zuwarah are:
- Ind Mensor (Elmansori or Almansouri tribe): among the most politically influential of this tribe is Mohammad Almansouri who was the Libyan Minister of Interior during the previous government (Kingdom of Libya). He was very transparent in his methods that he became almost the only member of the kingdom’s cabinet who was not arrested nor charged by the revolutionary council of 1969. Almost all of the previous ministers and influential politicians of the king Idris’ government were from Western Libya, many of whom were Berbers from Zuwarah, the Western Mountains and other Berber settlements. This was a strategy adopted by the colonial powers to unite Cyrenaica and Tripolitania into what is now known as Libya: they have chosen King Idris himself from Cyrenaica to please the Eastern Libyans who also resisted the occupation, and appointed the government ministers from Western Libya for their loyalty and expertise, thereby pleasing both sections of the country – or so they thought.
- At-Lellou (At-Lalla tribe)
- Ind Idris (Al-Edrisi tribe)
- Ind Esa (Esa tribe)
- Ind Zeffour (Zfafra tribe)
- Ind Gezzoul (Legs’sr tribe)
- Ind A’ettoush (Al-A’tt’oush tribe)
- The above sub-tribes include various clans: Al-A’azzabi, Boushwashi, Bousahmeen, Fdis’, Dehhan, Etwinee, Yea’la, H’naya, A’ekkari, En-nayel, Shelghem, Bouzriba, Bousennouga, A’eshshini, Jerrafa, Ben A’ribi, Ghriba, Merkous, Baskal, H’elmi, Boukria’at, Debaba, Malt’i, Boudeeb, Gereb, T’bia’a, Nannees, Annejjar; Alma’rouq, etc.
- Nafousah: a massive group of tribes inhabiting the Western Mountain, also known as Nafusa Mountain, including the towns of Yefren, Kabaw, Jado and Nalut, as well as other small villages and settlements found across the mountain tops. Al-Yaqubi (9th century) informs us that the territory of the Nafousa extended from southern Tripolitania to the neighbourhood of Kairouan (in Tunisia). Among the most prominent tribes of Yefren is Al-Barouni tribe, among whom Sulaiman Al-Barouni fought the Italian occupation and later established the Tripolitania Republic which never materialised.
(2) – The Eastern Berbers:
- The Eastern Berbers: those tribes inhabiting the oases of Jalo and Aujila (Jalu, Awjla or Awjilah) in Cyrenaica, Eastern Libya. These tribes were part of a larger group of Berber tribes inhabiting the various oases in the Libyan desert in both countries Libya and Egypt, of which only Siwa in Egypt survives to this day. In ancient times all the oases west of the Nile were inhabited by Berbers (Imazighen), and it is these oases that gave us the name “oasis“, from Latin oasis, from Greek, from Coptic ouahe, in turn from Berber-Egyptian wh”t.
(3) – The Southern Berbers:
- Tuareg: Tuareq, Twareq, Twareg, Imushagh, Imuhaq: the Tuareg tribes comprise a large and complex group of nomadic Berber tribes and clans, native to the Sahara desert and its various oases like Ghadames and Ghat. The Tuareg people speak a Berber language, which they call Tamasheght or Tamaheqt, and hence their name Kel Tamaheqt means “the Speakers of Tamazight“, meaning: “the Speakers of Berber Language“.
The Tuareg tribes are nomadic by nature and as such their traditional home is the great Sahara herself. The Tuareg are also called the “Blue People of the Sahara” simply because of the indigo fabric which stained their skin blue. The most distinguishable feature of Tuareg people is the “veil”, or tagelmoust in Tamasheght, which sadly is slowly disappearing from the lives of modern city Tuareg. The origin of the veil is not understood, but it is possible that its original use was to protect against desert sand and wind during travel from one caravan station to another, and that after few generations it became part of the culture where Tuareg men wear it even while eating inside their tents – they pass food and drinks under the veil. This hypothesis may explain why Tuareg women do not wear the veil, as they do not take part in these caravans and hence they are not exposed to desert sand and wind as their men are.
The name Tuareg, according to the historian Ibn Khaldun and other sources, comes from Berber Targa, the ancient name of Fezzan and a subdivision of Sanhaja Berber group of tribes, who were still inhabiting Fezzan during the time of Ibn Khaldun. The Tuareg people refer to themselves by various names including “Kel Tamashegh” or “Kel Tamaheq” (the People of Berber) and “Kel Tagelmoust” (the people of the Veil). The typical tall Tuareg nomad is highly dignified, grave, walks with long, slow steps, in unison with his camel, and, like all spearmen, carries himself erect. Their eyes are generally dark and piercing. Captain Denham describes the Tuareg women as having a copper complexion, large black eyes, finely shaped noses, and long plaited hair. Like his forefathers in the days of Herodotus, the modern nomad is conspicuously robust and healthful, eats and drinks sparely by necessity, and can walk 60 miles in two days on a handful of dried dates and a few cupfuls of water. The loneliness of the Sahara tends to intensify the sense of liberty to which the nomad is born heir. This sense of freedom is now in serious danger of becoming extinct.
An old Targi passing by a team of young dancers, at first he fails to imitate them, but then he succeeds in out-performing their best; and so, out of shame, forcing the youngsters to leave the place, one by one. Experience and subtlety is the theme of the dance. The Tuareg are highly spirited nomadic Berber people who originally controlled the whole of the Sahara, including parts of Libya, Algeria, Morocco, Mauritania, Niger, Mali and Burkina Faso. Tuareg language “Tamasheght” is a member of Berber (Tamazight) which includes about 40 major languages in North Africa. Only a handful of families still live a nomadic life in the Acacus region, but their peace and privacy are now threatened by tourists who seek them as a tourist attraction. Some eco-conscious tourists, however, do show some signs of respect and support, like offering help, fuel, buying some of their traditional hand-made jewellery, and asking them if they can take photos before doing so.
Berber Tuareg Confederacies
The Tuareg territories are divided into various federations in Libya, Algeria, Niger, Nigeria, Mali, Mauritania and Burkina Faso; each of which originally had its own traditions and tribal laws. The following map lists the Tuareg confederacies as Saltanate or Sulthanate, meaning “Emirates”. Please click on the map for a list of these Tuareg confederacies and political groups.
The Tuareg Tribes of the Sahara
The Tuareg Berber tribes of the Sahara desert are known by various names including the local Tuwareq (???????), Tuareq or Twareq, and the international forms Twareg, Tauareg, Tuwareg, Tuarek or Touareg, all of which are the plural form of the singular name Targi. The Tuareg are the native inhabitants of the Sahara desert, in North Africa, since immemorial time, and there are no records of anyone else inhabiting the Sahara before them. By nature they are nomadic tribes, moving from oasis to another in search of pasture and water, with settled groups in the oases, like Ghat and Ghadames in Libya. The Tuareg are a Berber group of tribes who speak Tamazight language, which is a Berber language belonging to the Afroasiatic (Afrasiatic) or Hamito-Semitic linguistic family; and hence they call themselves Imushagh (“The Speakers of Berber Language”), which resembles the modern variant Tamazight, which they also call Tamaheqt, Tamasheght, Tamajeght or Temesheght.
The Tuareg Confederacies
The Tuareg territories are divided into various confederacies or federations, each of which originally had its own traditions and tribal laws. Traditional Berber government consists mainly of a council of elders (the old people of the community), who meet to discuss and decide the affairs of the community. Given the current chaos across the planet one begins to see the common sense inherent in collective governing as opposed to the dangers posed by an individual ruler – be it a democratic ruler, a king, a queen, or a dictator. This system of government was also know to other ancient communities like the Romans, where the senates have become the modern parliament or congress. The above map lists the Tuareg confederacies as Saltanate or Sulthanate, meaning “Emirates”. The confederacies are colour-coded, and their names are as follows:
- 1 – Pink (top right): Azger Confederacy: located in Libya & Algeria: includes the Libyan oases of Ubari & Ghat.
- 2 – Pink (bottom right): Ayer Confederacy: located in Niger, also written Aïr, Air or Ayr.
- 3 – Pink (left): Awellimedden & Kel Athram Confederacy: located in Mali, includes Timbuktu.
- 4 – Yellow (top, between 1 & 3): Ahoggar Confederacy: located in Algeria: includes the oasis of Tamanrasset (also known as Tamanghasset).
- 5 – Yellow (middle, below 4): Tkerekrit (spelling ?) Confederacy: located in Niger & Mali: includes the oasis Agadir and Tawa.
- 6 – Green (right, right of 4 and below 1): Tamezgda Confederacy, located in Niger
- 7 – Orange (bottom, below 4): Agres [Kel Gress] Confederacy: located in Niger and Mali.
The Tuareg Political Groups
According to other sources, the Tuareg society is divided into the following political groups, which thus can be considered as confederacies:
- Azjer (Kel Ajjer), located in the Tassili-n-Ajjer Mountains.
- Ahaggaren (Kel Ahaggar), also known as Ihoggaren, located in the Ahoggar region.
- Ifora (Kel Adrar), located in the in the Foras Mountains ( of Adrar-n-Foras).
- Abzin (Kel Air), located in the Massif of Air: Abzin is often mentioned as Asben (meaning: ‘the Air Massif’)
- Itesan (Kel Gress), located south of Abzin.
- Awellimidden (Iwllemmeden, Oulliniden, Auellimmedden)i
- Kel Tadmaket, located around Timbuktu.
- Isandalan, located south of the Niger bend.
- Kel Owey, located in the central part of Air.
- Kel Ferwan, located Iferouane.
The Garamantes of Ancient Libya
The ancient Berber Garamantes tribes are widely considered as the ancestors of the current Tuareg tribes of Fezzan (Fazzan) in southern Libya. They had control over a wide area, spanning the entire region from Tibesti to Acacus including the enigmatic Messaks and Wadi Metkhandoush. They initially run their kingdom from the nearby capital Zinchecra then from Germa or Garama (today’s Jerma or Germa) in the first century AD, so named after their eponymous ancestorGaramas. Please click on the following link for the full article about Germa and the Garamantian civilisation of ancient Libya
The Tebo (or Tebu, Tibu, Tibo, Tibbo, or Tibbos) are a group of tribes found along the southern side of the Harouj mountain and to the east of Fezzan, all the way to the Egyptian border, including the Kofra and Bezzima Oases, as well as south to the Tibesti Massif and across the border in northern Chad, Niger and as far as the Sudan. The Tebo of the Kufra were invaded by the Senussi religious group in 1840s, and subsequently some of the inhabitants fled to the southern regions were they joined other Tebo tribes. The principal region of Tebo is Bilma, north of Lake Chad. The number of the Tebo in Libya was estimated to be around 5000 Tebbos, but the larger part of the group live in Chad and Niger. The Tbawi language is a member of the Nilo-Saharan language family. The main Tebo tribes include Kechad (of the towns of Abo and Tibesti), the Febabos (south south west of Aujilah), the Borgou (further south), the tribe of Arno, and the Gunda Tibbo (further southward). Early explorers remarked that the Tibbos are not like other central African tribes and that they appear to have been infused with other northern races (or tribes). Their bodies are slim and their walk is light and swift. Their facial features include sharp eyes and thick lips, and their hair is not as curly as that of other African tribes. Tebo females are light and graceful, whose striking features include aquiline noses and fine lips. Their hair is plaited on each side of the face.
The Jewish community’s existence in Libya goes back to the time of the pharaohs of ancient Egypt. Under the Roman rule the Jews were living in harmony with the native Berbers, until the first century when the Israeli zealot Jonathan incited the poor to revolt in Cyrene (in 73 BC), only to be crushed by the Romans. A second revolt followed in 115 in Cyrene (in Cyrenaica, Eastern Libya), in Egypt and in Cyprus. The number of Jews in Libya during the Italian occupation was estimated at about 25000 Jews, mainly living in the old city of Tripoli (al-h’ara), which was characterised by its narrow and roofed lanes. When the Germans occupied Benghazi the Jews were subjected to an ordeal that saw them persecuted and even deported, and as a result many Jews fled to other North African states and Europe for refuge.
After the 1969’s revolution, Libya witnessed a massive influx of foreign workers, primarily invited to take part in rebuilding Libya. Many of these workers came from Tunisia (construction workers and labour), Egypt (teachers), Palestine (teachers), Yugoslavia and Bulgaria (doctors and nurses). Then after Libya’s call for pan-African unity and a common currency, a second wave of immigrants, estimated at one million workers, began to arrive in late 1990s, mainly from other neighbouring African countries like Sudan, Niger, Chad and Mali. High Libyan wages for unskilled workers, which reached nearly $300 a month, were also attracting a large number of immigrants from sub-Saharan Africa and from Asia. It was reported that this wave of legal immigrants eventually led to other waves of illegal immigrants, and soon afterwards Libya became a transit route for organised criminals who smuggle illegal immigrants into Libya and then from Libya into Europe via Sicily and Italy. One of the main smuggling routes was the 800 miles desert route between Niger and Libya, via the cities of Agadez and Timbuktu. With the increase in Libyan unemployment (currently stands at about 35%) and the spread of prostitution and heavy drugs, which never exited in Libya before, many Libyans began to have a second thought about immigration, and thus through the local committees they influenced the General People’s Committee, the GPC, which enforces the will of the Libyan people, to react and order a crackdown on the employment of foreign illegal workers in the year 2000, and began a wave of mass deportation of illegal immigrants who had no official visas. As a result, tens of thousands of Nigerians, Ghanaians, Chadians, and many more from Niger, Gambia and Sudan were deported. The total number of illegal workers before the wave of deportation reached approximately 1.5 million worker; while the number of legal workers is estimated at about 3/4 (three quarters) of a million worker.
World Leaders and UN Security Council, We urge you to stop this nonsense! Remove the NO FLY ZONE and do your jobs!
Share FACTS, not propaganda and half-truths so US/France/UK/NATO can fool the world to support GENOCIDE:
We are on our own, Humanity. We have people at the United Nations and international community sleeping and choose to not take leadership.
DESTROY THE LIES:
Spread The Santos Republic to all your countries and governments.
Hold ALL NATIONS in NATO accountable. We are told by the Libyan Government that many Western companies are BEGGING to do business with Libya. Since USA, France, Cameron and NATO did this, we are told they can all forget ever entering Libya and do any business. This is very significant, because you can expect EVERYTHING will rise in prices. Thank Obama, Sarcozy, Cameron and NATO (and all those 30 countries who agreed to recognize the Libyan rebels as government) for making majority of you and your families suffer in your wallets even more, including the severe national debt you are all incurring for this war. All the people at Federal Reserve and Central Banks will be the one with big smiles.
Personal Remark: Americans and the rest of the world, do NOT give up your right to bear arms in your Constitutions (if you don’t, then make sure you have that right). Gaddafi armed his citizens to protect themselves from NATO invasion like this. How is that for taking care of his people? We have the right to protect ourselves and our families. Fascist-Corporatists are on the march. This “democracy” and “regime change” are nothing more than these people wanting to put people they can control so they can steal more from you and others. ENOUGH SUFFERING from the POWER HUNGRY and GREEDY!
Humanity, Diplomacy is dead. It is now time to demand justice for all the countries US/France/UK/Israel/NATO have destroyed. RISE.
AUTHOR: Lady Michelle Jennifer Santos – TSR Founder & Publisher and Strategy/Peace Negotiator with the UN Security Council Special Envoy to the Arab Nations (Author BIOGRAPHY here.)
NOTE: To the people who wonder who I am and where I got my information, the only way for you to verify is you can ask the highest level executives and world leaders at the United Nations. My name is in the most highly classified papers. My UN mentor is a First Level Ambassador. It is the highest ranking ambassador and diplomat on the planet. His uncle was one of the founders of the United Nations. He was grooming me. I am very much an insider and these TRUTHS are being suppressed purposely.